The entirety of Flusser’s article discusses various technologies and their viabilities in the future. For the most part, Flusser has a fairly mixed view on all these different techs, finding both positives and negatives with each that point towards their use in the future. However, he does seem to be more hopeful about digital technologies than print tech.

Point 1

Flusser’s argument begins at the source, discussing the advent of print and its impact on the world. Originally, print was mainly used to “settle the dispute over universalis in favor of the realists” (49), but it evolved to a level where it no longer meant what it originally did. Now, it “has become self-aware, as the expression of Western, historical, scientific, progressive thought,” and thus cannot be forgotten in the future.

Point 2

Flusser then discusses instructions and newspapers, two technologies that he has a very pessimistic opinion. “Now programming is rising up from alphanumeric code, becoming independent and separating itself from spoken language,” states Flusser, describing the idea that programming language is slowly taking over other written languages. Additionally, “the disappearance of the newspaper is beyond question,” due to the nature of free press and other social medias taking over its role. However, in both examples the idea of spirit — similar to aura discussed earlier — seems to endure, as neither will fully go away forever because of how they work.

Point 3

Finally, Flusser discusses manuscripts and the digital — one technology that will die alongside newspapers, and the other that will be taking the mantle from these other techs. “The printed paper will disappear from view to make room for invisible programs,” from which these digital technologies will “triumph much more quickly” due to their ability to react to images and thoughts more rapidly than these old technologies.

Confusion 1

Why exactly are stationaries in particular mentioned? That seems very close to print and seems to have been able to be absorbed into that section.

Confusion 2

The subscript and superscript sections seemed very unnecessary in my opinion. I didn’t fully understand why not to label them as introduction or conclusion.

Closing Question

What technology do you think might be able to bump out digital tech in the future?