I first began exploring some of the words that I found peculiar by using Voyant and exploring different patterns and trend lines within the narratives. After trying out a few things I came across the word CREEP. I began exploring the word count and trend line within the two narratives and then the text as a whole. I eventually came across this interesting graph:

Creep main

CREEP Occurrences in Main Text

I noticed the cyclical pattern that took place which reminded me of the wavelength, frequency, and the way in which light travels.  This immediately made me think of the title and the word REVOLUTIONS and its context within the story. From there, I used Vizor to identify each time that the word CREEP (along with its varying forms) appeared within the text to further pinpoint the page number, page line, and context. I then began looking at some of the discrepancies that existed between Hailey’s and Sam’s narrative with the word CREEP.

Another element that I found intriguing was the pinkish purple color used to represent CREEP and also the dates on the side. I wondered why Danielewski used the same color for the two different elements of the book. I therefore, recorded the date on each page that CREEP was used and compared the dates between Hailey’s and Sam’s narrative.


After recording and analyzing the data, I found that in the beginnning of the book, there were quite a bit of discrepancies with the word CREEP and there usage for Sam’s and Hailey’s narrative. As the story progressed, however, the discrepancies became less and less to the point where each time the word was used, CREEP was on the exact same page and line number and used in nearly the same context.

Also the usage of the word was very cyclical, meaning that the word would be used frequently within a few pages and then not used at all within the next 50 pages or so, thus creating the wave like pattern.

When looking at the dates, there was no distinct pattern other than the dates were spread approximately 45-50 years apart.



Visualization Final

With this graph I chose to represent the frequency of CREEP and its usage with five year intervals. The green line represents Sam’s timeline and usage of CREEP while the yellow line represent Hailey’s.

I chose to represent the data in this way because it resembled the trend line of the word CREEP throughout the main text (as seen above). You once again see the wave like structure that occurs, which is reminiscent of the word “REVOLUTIONS” found in the title and also alludes to the structure of the novel. The baseline runs through the center of the graph and measures the time in which CREEP is not used during a certain five year period. The scale on the y-axis is represented in increments of three and represents the amount of times CREEP is referred to. The scale is mirrored over the zero baseline so essentially 1/2 of the graph is upside down. I chose this method because it alludes to the structure of each page in the novel where 1/2 of the text is right-side-up while the other half is up-side-down.

This graph was also an exceptional way to show the gradual transition between the discrepancies of CREEP that occurred in the beginning and the almost identical usage of the word towards the end.

The bottom graph is similar to the top graph except the dotted line separates the actual numerical plotting point (left of dotted line) and the interpretative representation (right of dotted line).

The interpretative element of the graph is meant to represent the symbiotic relationship of Sam and Hailey that exists towards the end of the novel which is represented in the same usage of the word CREEP.


The ultimate goal of this visualization was two highlight to key elements that were used in interpreting and analyzing the novel: visual interpretation and numerical/analytical interpretation. The graph as a whole was also meant to allude to the structure of the novel based on layout and formatting, to the story itself which highlights the relationship between Sam, Hailey, and the CREEP, and lastly to relate the concept as a whole to the idea of REVOLUTIONS.